albizia lebbeck wood
Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Seedlings develop a long, stout taproot at an early age, are drought-tolerant, and require only minimal weeding during the first months after planting (Parrotta, 2002). Agroforestry Systems, 33(1):41-50; 29 ref, LennÃ© JM, Boa ER, 1994. FlorianÃ³polis, Santa Catarina, Brazil: I3N Brasil, Instituto HÃ³rus de Desenvolvimento e ConservaÃ§Ã£o Ambiental.http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br, IABIN, 2003. In: Caribbean Alien Invasive Species Network (CIASNET), 12 pp. retusa. There also exists a genus named Lebeckia, in reference to the lebbeck. A report for the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. 6 (Special Issue No. FAO of the United Nations and Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, 110-111, Macdonald IAW, Reaser JK, Bright C, Neville LE, Howard GW, Murphy SJ, Preston G, 2003. Delhi, India: International Book Distributors, MacDicken KG, 1994. [ed. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. 132 pp. Wood rather similar to Albizia lebbeck but lighter and softer (sp. A. lebbeck spreads by seed. Silvae Genetica, 45(1):31-33; 13 ref, Tomar OS, Yadav JSP, 1982. It was originally described by Carl Linnaeus as Mimosa lebbeck. In: Hitacharen C, MacDicken KG, Ivory MH, Nair KSS, eds. The medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. Antenna (London), 19(3):106. In Nigeria, damage has been caused by the striped mealy bug, Ferrisia virgata (Kadiata et al., 1992). Years 1999-2015. In: The PLANTS Database. Occurrence of an unnamed virus disease on nursery plants of A. lebbeck has been reported by Chowdhery et al. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. on degraded lands. Albizia lebbeck is a perennial, deciduous tree, native to Asia and introduced to tropical regions across the world as a shelter tree for cash crops, for erosion control, as a forage crop and as a source of hardwood. It reaches 3-15 m in plantations and up to 30 m in the open. In: Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project, Wageningen, Netherland, Plant Research International. Agroforestry Systems, 30(3):363-378; 25 ref, TN-EPPC, 2009. 5, February 1988, 3. A handbook for their identification. ], Shaikh MHA, 1992. Species Overview. The seeds are relatively large. Henderson L, 2001. In Puerto Rico, seedlings raised in plastic sleeves under light shade reached 20 to 30 cm height in 3 months (Parrotta, 1988). Consequently it is considered a potential habitat transformer species (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). This species is thought to occur naturally in coastal forests, monsoonal vine thickets, savannah woodlands and riparian areas in some parts of northern Australia, though it may be a relatively recent introduction to these regions. The bark, which contains 7-11% tannin, as well as saponin (Pal et al., 1995), is used locally in India for tanning and when dried and pounded can be used for soap (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). General Technical Report - Southern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962; Tripathi et al., 1979; Ganguli and Bhatt, 1993). Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species for Energy Production. of ref + refs in text], Gutteridge RC, 1988. It can be worked to a good surface that polishes well. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. 98. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Beltsville, USA: United States Department of Agriculture.274-275. Early growth and yield of Albizia lebbeck at a coastal site in Puerto Rico. Parrotta JA, 2002. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000, Acevedo-RodrÃguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 9: 92; 4 ref, Lowry JB, Prinsen JH, Burrows DM, 1994. Version 4. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Brisbane, Australia: CSIRO, DPI&F, CIAT, ILRI.http://www.tropicalforages.info/, Cowan RS, 2017. It is cultivated as a shade tree in North and South America. Archna, Nangia S, 1992. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.http://plants.usda.gov/, Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2016. http://www.se-eppc.org/, Seliskar CE, 1964. June 2017. (Base de dados nacional de espÃ©cies exÃ³ticas invasora)., FlorianÃ³polis - SC, Brazil: I3N Brasil, Instituto HÃ³rus de Desenvolvimento e ConservaÃ§Ã£o Ambiental. Albizia lebbeck is a deciduous, unarmed tree to 98.5 ft (30 m) tall, with a rounded, spreading crown and with grey fissured corky bark. Trees growing in the dry tropics show a crown diameter expansion of 2-2.2 m/year until mature. This species also forms symbiotic mycorrhizal associations between its roots and various fungi. A manual of New Guinea legumes. Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plant Particulars and Photographs. Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. Indian Journal of Forestry, 18(1):95-96; 2 ref, Misra KK, Saini BC, Jaiswal HR, 1992. Albizia lebbeck (syn. The foliage is highly digestibility early in the season, or in regrowth after cutting, and when mature it is of moderate digestibility, although it is still more digestible than mature grass. by tissue culture. Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit, with Laysan albatross chicks (Phoebastria immutabilis). South-east Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific. ; [18 pp. Flora of China. Indian Forester, 121(7):647-650; 10 ref, Kadiata BD, Mulongoy K, 1995. It is often introduced as a nitrogen-fixing species for reforestation and improvement of degraded sites (Parrotta, 2002). The latter name is a play on the sound the seeds make as they rattle inside the pods. Woman's Tongue, or cha-cha (Albizia lebbeck Benth. Desertification of western Maharashtra: causes and possible solutions. June 2017. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Journal of Hill Research, 8: 259-264, Rojas-Sandoval, J., Acevedo-RodrÃguez, P., 2015. http://www.agric.wa.gov.au, Rojas-Sandoval J, Acevedo-RodrÃguez P, 2015. Occurrence of virus disease on Albizia lebbeck. Listado de expertos y especies invasivas de Dominican Republic. , Lebbeck is an astringent, also used by some cultures to treat boils, cough, to treat the eye, flu, gingivitis, lung problems, pectoral problems, is used as a tonic, and is used to treat abdominal tumors. A severe mealybug infestation on some tree legumes. Volume 1. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool.  The bark is used medicinally to treat inflammation. The shade is also a benefit in animal production in the dry tropics. 173-178.  This information was obtained via ethnobotanical records, which are a reference to how a plant is used by indigenous peoples, not verifiable, scientific or medical evaluation of the effectiveness of these claims. Influence of host species in the initial growth and development of sandal (Santalum album Linn.). A. lebbeck can be found growing in deciduous and semi-deciduous monsoon forests, rain forests and humid forests, but it is also adapted to dry forests and semi-arid habitats in tropical and subtropical regions (Cook et al., 2005; Orwa et al., 2009). Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, Ketaki Chowdhery, Khan SN, Mehrotra MD, 1992. Indian Journal of Forestry, 15(3):283-284, Krauss U, 2012. Woman's tongue, or cha-cha (Albizia lebbeck Benth. Impact of multipurpose tree species on nutrient status of black soil. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/albleb.html, Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. Well you're in luck, because here they come. The Malesian species of Acacia and Albizia (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae). Hanelt P, Buttner R, Mansfeld R, 2001. Diseases of forest trees widely planted as exotics in the tropics and southern hemisphere. (Base de dados nacional de espÃ©cies exÃ³ticas invasora). Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia.1124 pp. Tree used as an ornamental. The native distribution range of A. lebbeck is obscure due to its extensive cultivation. (CatÃ¡logo de las Plantas Vasculares de Bolivia). Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press, BEST Commission, 2003. All fractions fed as supplements increased the digestibility of dry matter intake of low quality basal diet (Schlink et al., 1990). Online Portal of India Biodiversity. Agronomy and forage quality of Albizia lebbek in the semi-arid tropics. July 2009. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl, USDA-NRCS, 2016. The most common albizia wood material is wood. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Part 1. The genus is pantropical, though most species are native to warm regions of the Old World. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Parrotta JA, 2010. Psyllids attack Albizia lebbeck (Linn.) In India, it is found in areas which experience temperatures up to 49°C, but it is also found in areas which experience frost, with an absolute minimum temperature of -5°C (Hocking, 1993). A. lebbeck is a perennial, deciduous tree. 1192 pp. This species is known to be intolerant of continuous grazing by cattle (Lowry et al., 1994). This species currently holds a PIER weed risk assessment score of 7 in the Pacific Islands, where any score above 6 indicates the species is likely to be of high risk upon introduction to a new geographic area; in Australia, the species has a risk score of 4, indicating that more information is required to determine its potential impact (PIER, 2016). Common fuelwood crops. For larger trees, chemical control is recommended in combination with cutting, by treating stumps with herbicide to prevent regeneration (GISD, 2016; PIER, 2016). Seed can also be dispersed by cattle, squirrels and birds (Lowry et al., 1989; Langeland et al., 2009). Trees for Darwin and northern Australia. Albizia lebbeck is a species of Albizia, native to Indomalaya, New Guinea and Northern Australia and widely cultivated and naturalised in other tropical and subtropical regions. In Australia, establishment can be adversely affected by grazing of young plants by mice, rabbits and other wildlife (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992). Due to its extensive, shallow root system, A. lebbeck is a good soil binder and is recommended for soil conservation and erosion control (e.g. Family: Fabaceae Habit: Deciduous, unarmed tree to 20 m (65 ft) tall, with a rounded, spreading crown and pale bark. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. The flowers and stem bark are used to make medicine. CSIRO - Forestry and Forest Products, Client Report No. It is naturalized in many parts of the tropics including the Caribbean, Central America and South America; in some places it has also become invasive. Its uses include environmental management, forage, medicine and wood. ACIAR Forestry Newsletter No. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CV. The genus Albizia comprises approximately 150 species, mostly trees and shrubs native to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa (Parrotta, 2002). Tropical Grasslands, 23(2):84-91; 17 ref, Lowry JB, 1991. 11. These considerations led Lowry et al. An extensive literature on the trialling of A. lebbeck for land reclamation after mining and revegetation of fly-ash dumps indicates that there are alternative, better adapted species available for this purpose.Keating and Bolza (1982) describe the characteristics and uses of siris (A. lebbeck) wood. Effect of seed pretreatment with potassium nitrate and thiourea on germination of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. The fruit is a pod containing 6 -1… Its dense shade-producing crown can be as large as 30 m in diameter. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae. For example, the greater rhea (Rhea americana) has been observed feeding on it in the cerrado of Brazil. Naturalized populations of A. lebbeck can be found in Africa, tropical South America, southern USA (California, Florida and Texas), the Caribbean and on some islands in the Indian and Pacific Ocean (Orwa et al., 2009; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; ILDIS, 2016; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. Notes: Albizia stands as one of the few genera with a wide distribution spanning different continents where the heartwood of all species consistently fluoresces under blacklight. Trees mature and are able to produce seeds by 4 years of age. lebbeck is regarded as a valued forage for ruminants (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 55, 584 pp. English names for it include lebbeck, lebbek tree, flea tree, frywood, koko and woman's tongue tree. Myforest, 28(1):123-128; 1 ref, Sharma JK, Bhardwaj LN, 1988. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/IAS-present-in-SLU-May-2012-revision.pdf, Kumar N, Toky OP, 1994. stem heartwood of Albizia lebbeck benth (A) T.S showing large vessels surrounded by wood parenchyma, wood fibers and three biseriate medullary rays, Wood parenchyma and a (B) biseriate medullary rays, (C) Medullary rays and vessel filled with redish brown content, (D) Prismatic crystals along with crystal fibers (E) Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Other common names include Indian walnut, lebbeck, lebbeck tree, flea tree, frywood, and koko. Gupta, 1993; Tilander et al., 1995; Larbi et al., 1996) and this has also been trialled in Thailand (Gutteridge, 1988). Krauss U, 2012. Canberra, Australia: Australian Biological Resources Study, Department of the Environment and Energy.https://profiles.ala.org.au/opus/foa/profile/Albizia%20lebbeck, Cronk QCB, Fuller JL, 1995. The vegetation of Australia. Naturalized exotic tree species in Puerto Rico. Early nitrogen fixation and utilization in Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala, and Gliricidia sepium using nitrogen (, http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/IAS-present-in-SLU-May-2012-revision.pdf, http://www.irf.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/NevisPeakProtectedAreaTerrestrialBiodiversity_2009.pdf, http://www.the-eis.com/data/literature/Invasive%20alien%20species%20in%20southern%20Africa.pdf, http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/, http://s3.amazonaws.com/tneppc2/uploads/619/original/tn-eppc-plant-list-ww-w09-final-1.pdf, http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/albizia-lebbeck/, http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl, http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/search.html?zoom_query=, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. On lateritic plateaux, A. lebbeck grows with Hakea arborescens and Grevillea mimosoides in the shrub layer beneath low woodland and low open-forest. Wood used for light construction, posts, flooring, wall paneling, containers, woodware, carving, turnery, furniture, and veneers. 1124 pp. This species was originally introduced beyond its native range, for example in Florida, USA where it was imported in the 1880s for use as an ornamental street tree. In: Flora of Australia . NewCROP: the New Crop Resource Online Program. The species is known to be aggressive in Florida, where it has been reported invading conservation areas in southern and central Florida, as well as parts of coastal and sub-coastal Queensland, Australia, where it poses an environmental threat to native vegetation (FLEPPC, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2016). The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Flora of Panama (WFO). http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list. Revista Arvore, 19: 293-307, Federal Highway Administration, 2001. The timber of A. lebbeck is subject to borer and fungal attack while sapwood is liable to borers and termites but resistant to dry rot (Purdue University, 2017). and Canarium australianum. In Florida and the Caribbean, it flowers from April to September, but primarily in spring (or the onset of the rainy season), with pods held nearly throughout the year (Little and Wadsworth, 1964; Langeland et al., 2009). In India it occurs throughout most regions, except in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim (India Biodiversity Portal, 2016). http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html, Burg WJ van der, Freitas J de, Debrot AO, Lotz LAP, 2012. In South Africa, A. lebbeck invades coastal bush and riverbanks, displacing native plants, and is a category 1 weed under the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act, 1983. Acacia lebbek, Mimosa lebbeck), Indian siris, East Indian walnut, woman's tongue tree Family Fabaceae (Mimosoideae). http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br, ILDIS, 2016. International Legume Database and Information Service: World Database of Legumes (version 10)., Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. Effect of scarification treatments on the germination of Leucaena leucocephala, Albizia lebbeck and Samanea saman [Albizia saman]. This species is probably indigenous to the Indian subcontinent and to those areas of South East Asia with a marked dry season, such as northeastern Thailand, parts of Malaysia and in the eastern islands of Indonesia (Little, 1983; `t Mannetje and Jones, 1992; Lowry et al., 1994). No. Invasive alien species in southern Africa: national reports & directory of resources. West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. 12. This species was introduced to Brazil by 1934 where it has escaped from cultivation and it is now known to grow spontaneously there (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). I. Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html, Bolivia Catalogue, 2016. 279 p, Cook BG, Pengelly BC, Brown SD, Donnelly JL, Eagles DA, Franco MA, Hanson J, Mullen BF, Partridge IJ, Peters M, Schultze-Kraft R, 2005. Wallingford, UK: CABI. Lahainaluna Road, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Agriculture Handbook 249, USA: USDA Forest Service. As a nitrogen fixing species, A. lebbeck has the potential to change soil nitrogen levels with negative impacts on nutrient balances and cycling in invaded areas. Indian Forester, 121(12):1102-1107; 4 ref, Randall, R. P., 2012. > 0Â°C, wet all year, Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ÂºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ÂºC), number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall, Nitrogen-fixing species; has been intentionally planted for shade for livestock and for cash crops such as coffee and tea, erosion control, and as an ornamental tree, Escaped from agroforestry systems and gardens, Widely introduced in agroforestry sysyems, Leaves and seeds are used in traditional medicine, `t Mannetje and Jones, Growth and biomass production of Albizia lebbeck in relation to nitrogen and phosphorus application. Forest Ecology and Management, 16(1-4):243-251; 14 ref. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 17, 67-88. USA: Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council.http://s3.amazonaws.com/tneppc2/uploads/619/original/tn-eppc-plant-list-ww-w09-final-1.pdf, Toky OP, Bisht RP, 1993. Edinburgh, UK: E.& S. Livingstone Ltd, Weeds of Australia, 2016. Due to its rapid growth rate, albizia wood is a frequently used product. of different provenances. Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. A. lebbeck is a deciduous tree that can grow to 30 m in height with a stem diameter of 1 m, but more commonly it is 15-20 m tall and 50 cm in diameter at maturity, with grey fissured corky bark, somewhat flaky; inner bark reddish. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. There are 77 albizia wood for sale on Etsy, and they cost $23.80 on average. Its uses include environmental management, forage, medicine and wood. If older stems are cut for fuel-wood and forage, plants coppice vigorously in recovery. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf, Cook BG, Pengelly BC, Brown SD, Donnelly JL, Eagles DA, Franco MA, Hanson J, Mullen BF, Partridge IJ, Peters M, Schultze-Kraft R, 2005. (1994) highlighted the fact that in northern Australia the species, as well as providing stock feed directly, appears to enhance pasture production and quality, probably due to shading and related improved soil moisture status and fertility from litter breakdown. Trees usually attain a maximum height of up to 18 m (Parrotta, 1988). Report to the Nature Conservancy. Albizia lebbeck - a promising forage tree for semiarid regions. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/. In India, it is found in tropical evergreen, semi-evergreen and deciduous forests in areas with a mean rainfall of 600 to 2500 mm (Troup and Joshi, 1983). (1994) to suggest three management options for incorporating A. lebbeck in pastoral systems: (1) grow trees intensively in rows and woodlots, as a protein supplement, for feeding weaners or as a drought reserve, lopping annually or as necessary, (2) establish trees at low density in open woodland with no management once established, and (3) develop agroforestry regimes in which animal production benefits are combined with wood production. Research and the implementation of methods of prevention and intervention are urgently needed, especially considering the popularity of A. lebbeck as an ornamental and its potential for aggressive invasiveness. Compendium record. Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); fallen seedpods. Branches can fall easily with no warning, even from healthy trees. and defoliators such as psyllids (probably Heteropsylla) (Hegde and Relwani, 1988; Ahmed et al., 1995). Caribbean Alien Invasive Species Network (CIASNET), 12 pp. in India (Harsh, 1993). of ref, Beard JS, 1979. Strong winds can carry intact pods for considerable distances (Lowry et al., 1994). Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition., http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/search.html?zoom_query=, Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Important members of the Myrtaceae, Leguminosae, Verbenaceae and Meliaceae. Agroforestry Systems, 24(3):277-293; 25 ref, Tilander Y, Ouedraogo G, Yougma F, 1995. National Geographic 28,178,856 views The fruit is a pod 15–30 cm long and 2.5-5.0 cm broad, containing six to twelve seeds.. Germination ecology of twelve indigenous and eight exotic multipurpose leguminous species from Ethiopia.
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