neo classical management theory

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December 8, 2020

The experiments showed that a balanced approach should be taken to the whole situation. He also related productivity to a social phenomenon. Hawthorne experiment led to the development of human relations approach. He states, “In a federal organisation, local managements must also participate in the decisions that establish their own local business, and that set the limits of their own authority. The neo-classical theory emphasises that a worker brings both his person and personality to the workplace, and both these aspects must be taken into consideration while managing the organisation. As such, in determining production efficiency, emotional factors play a more important role than monetary factors. This movement is marked by informal grouping, informal relationship and leadership Pattern of communication and philosophy of industrial humanism. This is in no way a unified body of thought. These conclusions are based on clinical insight rather than on scientific evidence. Management—Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert Jr. To sum up, the behavioural sciences approach gives emphasis on increasing productivity through motivation and leadership. Neo-classical theory focuses its attention on the worker and it is employee-oriented. They should not be treated as applicable to all situations. It puts all the emphasis on interpersonal relations and on the informal group. An organisation based on the human element is essentially a social system and not merely techno-economic system. His development of a need hierarchy to explain human behaviour and the dynamics of motivation process is an important contribution. Classical theory concentrated on job content and management of physical resources. System theory calls attention to the dynamic and interrelated nature of organisations and the management task. This approach was first highlighted by the improvements known as ‘Hawthrone Experiments’ conducted at Illionois plant of Western Electric Company between 1927 and 1932. The contributions of some thinkers in this area are discussed here: Elton Mayo, an Australian by birth went to United States and joined the staff of Harvard University. Organization and Management (1948). Disclaimer 9. The reason is simple, these firms must innovate to find ways to satisfy strict laws while remaining competitive with firms that have no such rules. These are the needs derived from recognition, status, achievement, power, prestige etc. Therefore, these matters are important for the organisation in case of motivation. (b) At the time of his decision he believes that it is not inconsistent with the purpose of the organisation. ‘Then’ represent management variables which are dependent on the environment. No doubt, this approach has provided many new ideas in managing the organisation, but this is not free from certain limitations – Human relations approach cannot be treated as complete package to deal with human being effectively, because no attempt had been made for studying and analyzing human behaviour systematically and scientifically. The team constructs a mathematical model to simulate the problem. His important writings include. In fact, Peter Drucker has written on so many aspects of management that it is very difficult to summaries his thoughts on all those aspects of management. There are three different types of organizational theory to predict and explain the process and also behavior patterns in an organizational setting: Classical Organization Theory, Neo-Classical Organizational Theory, and Modern Organizational Theory. An Individual selects product and services rationally, keeping in mind the usefulness thereof. Neoclassical theory focusses its evolution of management thought attention on the worker and it is employee-oriented. (iii) It revealed the importance of social and psychological factors in determining worker productivity and satisfaction. Elton Mayo and Mary Parker Follett are the main contributors of human relations approach. Instead, they tried to come up with “universal principles” that could be applied without the “it depends” dimension. (h) Management as a discipline draws and integrates knowledge from various disciplines and schools of thought, like psychology, sociology, anthropology, mathematics, operation research, and so on. There were instances where productivity increased in the absence of control and coercion. His interest was primarily in people in organizations. McGregor was a social psychologist and professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has to redirect resources from areas of low or diminishing results to areas of high or increasing results. 2. However, the following are some of his most important contributions. The work to people is as normal as play and rest. On the otherhand, management must recognise its importance and it must be integrated with formal organisation. Frederick Herzberg developed a two-factor theory of motivation. He has emphasised to put rules on trial at regular intervals. Leader does not have full confidence in them. Group Dynamics at the workplace become a major force. The contingency approach is also criticized on the ground that it is totally a practical approach without being supported by required theoretical and conceptual framework. The large organisations make a living possible through knowledge. Knowledge is the very foundation of the modern organisation.” He has decried bureaucratic structure because of its dysfunctional attributes. He named it as Theory X and Theory Y. In the nineteenth century, modern theories of organization and management have been developed. It is built on the base of classical theory. The; theory contains some fundamental truths. Group psychology plays an important role in any organisation. This is broad based and consists of multiple concepts such as motivation, leadership, communication, change and development, group dynamics, jobs redesign, etc. With striking regularity, firms from one or two nations achieve disproportionate worldwide success in particular industries. We, can build up training programmes for workers and managers with the help of behavioural sciences. Human relation approach is a social psychological approach and suggests business enterprise is a social system in which group norms play a significant role. It creates new ‘constitution’ and new ordering principle. And each system in turn may be a sub-system of a still larger whole. It gets various resources from the environment and transforms them into outputs desired by the environment. challenged, criticism was concentrated o n those individual managers and t heorists who . Appraisal of Behavioural Science Approach: The study of human behaviour is of great significance in management. It poin­ted out the role of psychology and sociology in the under­standing of individual as well as group behaviour in an orga­nisation. (d) It does not consider the human element in the organisation. He was able to show that humane and respectful treatment, sense of participation and belonging, recognition, morale, human pride and social interaction are sometimes more important than pure monetary rewards. Taylor wanted only experts in job analysis and planning of job operations. This approach emphasized on informal group which exercise a significant influence on the attitudes, behaviour and performance of employees. (iv) Communication for better understanding in the organisation. It is a humanistic approach focusing on human relations, group motivation, dynamic leadership and democratization of the power structure through participative management etc. Likert was the Director of Institute of Social Sciences, Michigan, U.S.A. There may arise conflicts between the organizational goals and group goals. There is a close relationship between morale and productivity and therefore management must take greater interest in employees’ development and satisfaction. Now we have a shift in managerial style from product-centred ap­proach to employee and group-centred approach. The Neo-Classical Theory – covered two streams dealing with human factor, viz. His main contributions are described as follows: Mayo is rightly called the father of human relations movement. Behavioural approach provided a new insight to human behaviour. At the workplace, the workers- often do not act or react as individuals but as members of groups. Privacy Policy 9. McGregor is known for the development of a theory on Motivation. They consider that informal organisation does also exist within the framework of formal organisation and it affects and is affected by the formal organisation. Productivity is influenced by plant efficiency, work environments, managerial style, job contents, man-machine etc. It will provide a general description of each of these management theories together with observations on the environment in which these theories were applied and the successes that they achieved. Another contribution of Michael E. Porter is the “Five Forces Model” to the corporate strategy, in his view, an organisation’s ability to compete in a given market is determined by that organisation’s technical and economic resources, as well as by five environmental forces each of which threatens the organisations venture into a new market.

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